10 Little Things That Changed The Course of History

History can be brutally boring as well as equally interesting, all depends on prospective. But did you know that some of the most important and disastrous events in human history were outcomes of unimaginably small mistakes and sometimes accidents?

Keep reading the list to know who and what was responsible for those small mistakes, and how that mistakes later became responsible for large scale destructive and constructive events.

10. Hiroshima & Nagasaki Were Bombed Due to A Misunderstood Word

Hiroshima & Nagasaki Were Bombed
Perhaps one misinterpreted Japanese word boosted the decision of president Harry S. Truman to order atomic bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

When reporters asked Japanese premier “Kantaro Suzuki” about Potsdam declaration for unconditional surrender during World war II, he replied with a word “Mokusatsu”, that probably meant “no comments “. But the word have multiple meanings and some people translated it to “we are ignoring the declaration “. This is how it was reported to America and about 10 days later bombs were dropped.

9. A meteor Is Responsible For The Spread Of Christianity

A meteor Is Responsible For The Spread Of Christianity
A Roman emperor named Constantine who ruled from 306 to 337 AD, was a significant figure in the history of Christianity, as he was the first person to claim conversion to Christianity in Roman empire. He also played an influential role for enabling tolerance of Christianity in that empire, which is one of the most important factor in spread of that religion.

However, he became Christian after observing a cross in the sky made out of light, while he was in a battle.

He claimed to have seen a message of God guiding him in the battle. But today’s geologists believe that he might actually saw a meteor, which created an illusion of cross, and probably his wishful thinking convinced him that it was apparently a message of God.

8. One Key Could Save Titanic

One Key Could Save Titanic
The crew of Titanic wasn’t using binoculars that could help them to spot the iceberg and get out of the way, soon enough to avoid the disaster.

Apparently, David Blair was given the job of second officer on the ship, but he was replaced, and when he left, he accidentally kept the keys to his locker with him, that believed to contain binoculars intended to be used by the crew’s nest lookout.

As you might have guessed by now, that key is extremely valuable in today’s time, because the key could have saved Titanic from sinking and hundreds of people from dying. The key was auctioned and a Chinese man bought it for £90,000.

7. Napoleon Almost Wasn’t French

Napoleon Almost Wasn’t French
Napoleon was a French military and political leader, who rose to prominence during French revolution, and led several successful campaigns. Due to his remarkable achievements, courageous personality and invincible influence on the world, he remains to be one of the most celebrated and controversial figure in human history.

But all of it wouldn’t have happened if he wasn’t French, and according to historians he almost wasn’t. The island he belonged to, only became French island 3 months prior to Napoleon’s birth.

6. There Was Almost No East India Company

East India Company
Robert Clive, a Governor general of Bengal in East India Company, was one of few people responsible for establishment of the East India company. He led battle against the French forces and came out with the victory, that later proved to be the most important victory for the company.

Now, this isn’t confirmed, but some historians believe that Robert Clive tried to commit suicide when he was 19 years old, but failed, and went on to become one of the most prominent figure in the company.

5. Osama Bin Laden Was Almost Dead Before 9/11

Osama Bin Laden Was Almost Dead Before 9/11
Bill Clinton the former president of U.S.A once had an option to kill Osama bin laden in 1998. But he decided not to kill him, to save 300 innocent civilians, that would also have died during the attack.

About 3 years later Osama bin Ladin plotted 9/11 and killed about 2,996 people, injured more than 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion worth of property and infrastructure damage.

However, we can’t blame Bill Clinton for it because he made a perfect decision at his time, saving 300 innocent people instead of killing one jihadist must have felt more fair. Osama bin ladin actually died in 2011.

4. Safety Glass Was Invented By An Accident

Safety Glass Was Invented By An Accident
If you’re unfortunate enough to get in a car accident while you’re driving, you’ll certainly have one odd working in your favour, your windshield.

Windshield is made out of safety glass which is less likely to break and shatter into pieces to pose threat to your eyes.

Safety glass was actually discovered in 1903 due to an accident. When a French scientist Édouard Bénédictus dropped a glass flask contained with plastic cellulose and nitrate, and it didn’t shatter. Later several tweaks gave us a perfect glass for our windshields.

3. Largest Wildfire In California History Was A Mistake of Lost Man

Largest Wildfire In California History
In 2003, the largest wildfire in the history of California known as Cedar fire burned down a large area of land in San Diego county, it has estimated to have burned 3,200 kilometer square, caused $27 million worth of property damage and killed about 15 people.

The fire was actually caused by an hunter named Sergio Martinez, who got lost while hunting. He lit the fire to signal rescuers but unusual environmental conditions boosted the fire to a large scale disaster.

2. Penicillin was discovered by an accident

little things that changed the course of history
Penicillin antibiotics were among the first and most important antibiotics to be effectively work against bacterial infections. However, the story of its discovery is also quite fascinating. Apparently a Scottish scientist named Alexander Fleming was experimenting with staphylococcus, but he went on a vacation lasted for two weeks. Interestingly he left staphylococcus in a Petri dish. When he returned, he witnessed one of the most astonishing event in the history of medicine.

He saw that staphylococcus was contaminated with blue green mould from an open window, more importantly bacteria were unable to grow anywhere near the mould.

1. Hitler Was About To Be A Painter

Paintings by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler the leader of Nazi party, lone man responsible for World War II (deadliest war in human history), Holocaust at unbelievably massive scale and also for many other destruction’s world war caused. It’s hard to believe, but Hitler wanted to be a painter at his young age.

He applied to academy of fine arts Vienna for drawing classes, when he was 18 years old but got rejected, but he didn’t gave up and applied again one year later. Again he got rejected and didn’t become an artist. What he became eventually is an ugly history.

10 Times People Predicted the Future

10 Times People Predicted the Future:
10. Morgan Robertson Predicted The Titanic Disaster
Morgan Robertson Predicted The Titanic Disaster
In 1898 author Morgan Robertson published a novella titled ‘Futility, or the Wreck of the Titan’. It told the story of a fictional ocean liner, ‘Titan’, which sinks in the North Atlantic Ocean after striking an iceberg. Sound familiar? I’m not surprised… fourteen years later, the events of Robertson’s book were mirrored almost exactly with the 1912 sinking of the RMS Titanic, which saw 1,503 people perish. In fact the list of similarities between the fictional Titan and the real Titanic is truly extensive. The Titan was described as a similar size and speed to RMS Titanic, both sank in April, both lost more than half their passengers and crew, and both had a dangerously low number of lifeboats. What is especially intriguing is the fact that Robertson wrote the book before the Titanic had even been conceptualized. So how did he predict the disaster so astutely? Robertson denied accusations of clairvoyance, protesting that the similarities were only the result of his extensive knowledge of shipbuilding and maritime trends.

9. H. G. Wells Predicted The Atomic Bomb
H. G. Wells Predicted The Atomic Bomb
In 1914 the author of ‘The Time Machine’ and ‘The War of the Worlds’ predicted atrocities that even at the height of the Second World War most people wouldn’t have dared imagine could be possible: the destruction of cities by the atomic bomb. In his novel ‘The World Set Free’, he described a uranium-based hand grenade that ‘would continue to explode indefinitely’. To be fair, Wells did know quite a bit about radioactive elements, having read into atomic physics. But he had no way of knowing that it would actually be possible to weaponize nuclear power in the future. The Manhattan Project, which designed the first atomic bomb, did not begin until 28 years after Wells’ book was published. It was this project that led to the creation of Little Boy and Fat Man, the nuclear bombs that were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, leading to an estimated 226,000 deaths.

8. Nikola Tesla Predicted Wi-Fi In 1901
Nikola Tesla Predicted Wi-Fi In 1901
Often nicknamed ‘the man who invented the 20th century’, the Serbian-American inventor and engineer Nikola Tesla is best known for his contribution to the development of the modern electricity supply system.

In a 1909 interview with the New York Times, Tesla discussed his thoughts and predictions about the future of technology. He said, ‘It will soon be possible to transmit wireless messages all over the world so simply that any individual can carry and operate his own apparatus’. This is an unbelievable statement for him to have made at this time, as the first mobile telephone wasn’t created until 1973 and Wi-Fi wasn’t introduced until 1991. It could also be argued that Tesla foresaw the invention of Skype and video calling. In 1926 he said that ‘through television and telephony we shall see and hear one another as perfectly as though we were face to face, despite intervening distances of thousands of miles’. In 2013 Tesla was memorialized with a statue in San Francisco that, appropriately enough, emits free Wi-Fi for visitors. That’s definitely what he would have wanted.

7. Robert Boyle Predicted Organ Transplants in The 1660s
Robert Boyle Predicted Organ Transplants
Robert Boyle was a phenomenally influential scientist, often known as the ‘father of modern chemistry’. He is best known for Boyle’s law – which talks about the behavior of gases – and the way he used proper experiments to test his hypotheses, rather than just arguing them out, which was the norm at the time. However, he is also known for being way ahead of his time. In the 1660s, he made a ‘wish list’ for the future of science, explicitly noting in his journal that – in the future – medicine will see ‘the cure of diseases by transplantation’, a previously unthought-of notion. Sure enough in 1954 – over 300 years after Boyle’s staggering prediction – Dr. Joseph Murray and Dr. David Hume performed the first ever successful organ transplant, transplanting a kidney. These days this very procedure is used to save lives all over the world – in 2014, 17,107 kidney transplants took place in the US alone. And this isn’t all that the scientist foresaw. In his mysterious ‘wish list’, he specifically mentioned submarines, genetically modified crops and psychedelic drugs.

6. Edgar Cayce Predicted The 1929 Wall Street Crash
The 1929 Wall Street Crash
Edgar Cayce was a hugely popular mystic in the early 1920s. While in a trance, he would answer questions on everything from personal issues to national politics, with his best-known clients including Woodrow Wilson and Thomas Edison. In 1925 Cayce began warning that 1929 would see the beginning of a catastrophic economic depression in America. Some of his clients heeded Cayce’s warnings and withdrew their savings from banks. As Cayce predicted, in 1929 the New York Stock Exchange crashed. 13 million people were plunged into unemployment and stock prices didn’t return to normal until 1954. Cayce’s prophecies did not end there. In 1938 he predicted that archaeologists would make a discovery ‘in ‘68 or ‘69’ under ‘the slime of ages and sea water near Bimini’ in the Bahamas, and this would represent the ‘rising of Atlantis’. And surprise, surprise, in 1968 the Bimini Road was uncovered – a mysterious underwater rock formation that some people claim is part of the legendary lost city of Atlantis. He also accurately predicted the coming of his own death. On January 1st 1945, he said we would be buried in four more days. True to his word, he died of a stroke on January 3rd.

5. Mark Twain Predicted His Own Death
Mark Twain Predicted His Own Death
In his 1909 autobiography, American literary icon Mark Twain made an ominous prediction: the timing of his own death. Twain was born on 30th November 1835, shortly after Halley’s comet had come into visibility from Earth – as it does every 75 to 76 years. Aged 74, Twain wrote: ‘I came in with Halley’s comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it.’ Sure enough, Twain died on 21st April 1910, the very day after the comet appeared once more.

And this is not the only way in which Twain accurately prophesied the future. In 1898 the author wrote a short science fiction story called ‘From the ‘London Times’ in 1904’, which was set six years in Twain’s future. In it, he described a device called the ‘Telelectroscope’, which was ‘connected with the telephonic systems of the world’ and made ‘the daily doings of the globe visible to everybody’. And if we’re being generous – and we are – then you could say that this means Twain sort of predicted the Internet 90 years before Tim Berners-Lee launched the World Wide Web.

4. Jules Verne Predicted The Moon Landing
Jules Verne Predicted The Moon Landing
Another author whose fiction turned out to be eerily accurate is Jules Verne, a 19th century French novelist who wrote the classic adventure story ‘Around the World in Eighty Days’. In 1865 he wrote a short science fiction story called ‘From the Earth to the Moon’, which described humankind making its first ever trip to the moon. Sure enough, on July 20th 1969, Neil Armstrong made ‘one giant leap for mankind’ and set foot on the surface of the moon, almost a century after Jules Verne envisaged it.

But the simple fact that Verne imagined that lunar travel may one day be possible isn’t the only thing that makes his prediction notable. There were similarities between the real Apollo mission and the journey made in ‘From the Earth to the Moon’, such as the number of astronauts aboard and the fact that both rockets launched from Florida. However, the spookiest coincidence is that Verne described the astronauts experiencing a feeling of weightlessness. At the point at which he wrote the story, scientists didn’t know that gravity behaves differently in space, so there is no way he could have known to describe this.

3. Alexis De Tocqueville Predicted The Cold War In 1840
Alexis De Tocqueville Predicted
Back in the 1840s, America had only been independent from Britain for just over 60 years and it was a country deeply divided by civil war. What’s more, Russia was still under the autocratic and hierarchical leadership of the tsarist regime.You would have therefore not expected these two nations to become the two major superpowers battling for world supremacy just over a century later. It seems weird, then, that French political scientist Alexis de Tocqueville predicted just that in his 1840 publication: ‘Democracy in America’. He wrote: ‘There are now two great nations in the world which, starting from different points, seem to be advancing toward the same goal: the Russians and the Anglo-Americans… each seems called by some secret desire of Providence one day to hold in its hands the destinies of half the world’. Sure enough, the latter half of the 20th century saw increasing tensions between America and the Soviet Union, with each trying to better the other in nuclear advancements, space technology and international influence.

2. Nostradamus Predicted The Great Fire of London
People Predicted the Future
The 16th century prophecies of French apothecary and seer Michel de Nostredame are legendary. He has been credited with predicting numerous major world events, even ones that occurred over four centuries after his death. One of the most famous Nostradamus predictions involved the Great Fire of London, which consumed the city in 1666 and destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City’s 80,000 inhabitants. In his 1555 book, ‘Les Propheties’, he wrote: ‘The blood of the just will be lacking in London, burnt up in the fire of ‘66.’ Creepy, right?

Furthermore, it can be argued that Nostradamus predicted the 1789 French Revolution. He said: ‘From the enslaved populace, songs, chants and demands, while princes and lords and held captive in prisons.’ This does sounds similar to the way the downtrodden peasant majority rose up and arrested the French aristocracy during the revolution. Nostradamus also discusses ‘headless idiots’, which could be in reference to the thousands of people executed by guillotine during the ensuing Reign of Terror, including King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette. However, you do need to take Nostradamus’ predictions with a little pinch of salt. His writings were so extensive that a liberal interpreter could find predictions for pretty much anything they wanted to within his work.

1. Leonardo Da Vinci’s Predictions
Da Vinci’s Predictions
Scientist, artist, mathematician, musician… there are few fields that Renaissance polymath Leonardo da Vinci wasn’t an expert in. But was he also a prophet? Da Vinci’s notebooks, in which he recorded his thoughts from the mid 1480s to his death in 1519, are littered with designs for inventions and technologies that are completely out of his time. It’s not accurate to credit da Vinci with inventing these items, as his diagrams were not detailed plans of how they’d work, but more predictions of inventions that could exist. For example, he drew up designs for a tank-like armored war vehicle – over 400 years before they became a reality.

Furthermore, da Vinci once drew a diagram of an early parachute, 3 centuries prior to the first parachute jump being performed by Andre-Jacques Garnerin in 1797. In 2000 skydiver Adrian Nicholas tested a parachute created from da Vinci’s designs, using it to safely jump from a hot air balloon at 3,000 meters. He described the ride as smoother than a modern parachute, but because it weighed 9 times more than parachutes today, it did put him in danger of injury when landing.

10 Most Celebrated Athletes of The Ancient Olympics

Every athlete dreams of participating in the Olympic Games. It is undoubtedly the most prestigious event in the field of sports across the globe with a history of 12 long centuries. The first event is traditionally dated to 776 BC and was held in Olympia, Greece.

The Ancient Olympics differed from our Modern Day Olympics in several ways. They were given a mythological origin by the Greeks. Besides an athletic event, it was also an important religious celebration held in the honor of the Greek God Zeus. There were fewer events and the prizes for the victors were olive leaf wreaths or crowns.

The achievements of a few legendary athletes in antiquity are so extraordinary that they are remembered even today, hundreds of years after their deaths. Listed below are Top 10 Celebrated Champions of the Ancient Olympics along with some fascinating stories, records and facts.

10. Onomastos Of Smyrna
Onomastos Of Smyrna
Onomastos was the first ever Olympic victor in boxing. The sport was introduced at the 23rd Olympiad in 688 BC. According to historians, he was also the one who wrote the rules of the Ancient Greek boxing. With four victories to his name, Onomastos holds an unbroken record of “the boxer with the most Olympic boxing titles” till date.

9. Orsippus Of Megara
Orsippus Of Megara
Orsippus was a famous Greek runner from Megara. He rose to fame as “the first to run the footrace naked at the Olympics” and also “the first of all Olympic victors to be crowned naked”. He won the stadion race of the 15th Ancient Olympic Games held in 720 BC. That was when the Greek tradition of athletic nudity (gymnos) was introduced and adopted as well.

8. Euryleonis Of Sparta
Euryleonis Of Sparta
Euryleonis was a celebrated woman charioteer. She won the two-horse chariot race of the Ancient Olympics in 368 BC. She was a wealthy princess and a passionate horse breeder.

Euryleonis was the second female crown-bearer in the Olympic history. Her predecessor, the Spartan Princess Kynisca, had won the four-horse race 24 years earlier.

A statue of Euryleonis was erected at Sparta. It is one of few bronze statues that survives anywhere in the Greek world.

7. Kyniska Of Sparta
Kyniska Of Sparta
The Greek Princess Kyniska is the first woman in history to win at the Ancient Olympic Games. Her chariot won in the four-horse chariot race in the 96th and 97th Olympiads (396 BC and 392 BC respectively).

Kyniska was born around 440 BC to the King of Sparta, Archidamos. Kyniska is said to have been a tomboy, an expert equestrian and very wealthy- the perfect qualifications for a successful trainer. She was exceedingly ambitious to succeed at the Olympic Games.

Traditionally, women were not allowed to take part in the Olympic Games. However, they could enter the equestrian events by owning and training the horses. Her brother, Agesilaus, the later king of Sparta encouraged her to participate. She employed men and entered her team at the Olympics.

Kynisca was honored by having a bronze statue of a chariot and horses, a charioteer and a statue of herself in the Temple of Zeus in Olympia. It had an inscription written declaring that she was the only female to win the wreath in the chariot events at the Olympic Games.

Even until today, Kyniska is seen as a symbolic figure of the social rise of woman. Her success was the beginning of the movement to give them equal rights and opportunities.

6. Diagoras Of Rhodes
Diagoras Of Rhodes
Diagoras was a Greek boxer well known for his own victories, as well as the victories of his sons and grandsons. Diagoras won the boxing event in the Games of 464 BC. He was also a four-time winner in the Isthmian Games, and a two-time winner in the games at Nemea.

His oldest son, Damagetos, won the pankration in 452 and 448 BC. Akousílaos, the second son, won the boxing in 448 BC. The two celebrated their victory by carrying their father on their shoulders around the stadium which was filled with cheering spectators. That time, one of the spectators shouted, “Die, Diagoras; you will not ascend to Olympus besides” meaning he has reached the highest honor possible for a man. Diagoras died on the spot, and has since been considered the happiest mortal that ever lived.

Diagoras’s daughter, Kallipáteira was the first lay woman to enter the Olympic stadium. Since women were banned from watching the Olympics, except the priestess of Demeter, she entered the stadium disguised as a man. When it was discovered, a law was passed that all future trainers should strip before entering the arena.

5. Melankomas Of Caria
Melankomas Of Caria
Melankomas was crowned Olympic boxing champion in 49th BC, and also was a winner in many other events. He was reputed to fight for two days holding his arms out without ever lowering them. He attained his excellent competitive form through continuous and strenuous exercise.

He was admired for his unique boxing style. His movements were light, simple and fascinating. Melankomas remained undefeated throughout his career—yet he never once hit, or was hit by, an opponent. He would only defend himself from the blows of his opponents. Invariably, the opponent would grow frustrated and lose his composure. In this manner, he won the Olympic boxing tournament at the 207th Olympic Games.

4. Astylos Of Croton
Astylos Of Croton
Astylos was victorious in three successive Olympic Games from 488 to 480 BC, in the running events of stade and diaulos. He also won the hoplitodromos event- a running race with full armored suits. He won a total of six victory olive wreaths in three Olympiads.

In the 488 BC Olympics, he ran for his hometown Croton, whereas in the next two Olympiads, he chose to participate as a citizen of Syracuse in honor of the tyrant Hieron. His compatriots honoured and glorified him for his first victory. Despite a successful career, he had to face dishonor and defamation when his decision to play for Syracuse enraged the citizens of Croton. They expelled him and demolished his statue in their city. His family renounced him and his house was turned into a prison as a sign of disrespect. It is also said that Astylos was bribed by officials in Syracuse to compete under their name.

3. Theagenes Of Thasos
Theagenes Of Thasos
Theagenes was a successful boxer, pankratiast, and runner. Owing to his extraordinary strength and swiftness, he was believed to be the son of Heracles-a divine hero in Greek Mythology. He won the Boxing tournament in the 75th Olympiad (480 BC), and a title for pankration in the next. Altogether, he was said to have won over 1300 crowns for different contests at all of the Panhellenic Games.

A curious story is told by Pausanias, a Greek historian, about a statue of Theagenes made by Glaucias of Aegina. It was scourged by a man who had a grudge against Theagenes. One night, the statue fell upon this man, killing him. The statue was put on trial for murder and exiled by being thrown into the sea. It was later restored as the Delphic oracle had declared that the country would remain in a period of barrenness otherwise.

2. Leonidas Of Rhodes
Leonidas Of Rhodes
Leonidas of Rhodes was one of the most famous runners of antiquity. For four consecutive Olympiads (164-152 BC), he won all the three races, – the stadion, the diaulos and the hoplitodromos.

He was a versatile runner. The stadion and the diaulos were best suited to sprinters while the hoplitodromos required more muscular strength and endurance. As a victor in all three of them, he earned the title “Triastes” (tripler).

His lifetime record of twelve individual Olympic victory wreaths was finally surpassed in 2016 when Michael Phelps won his 13th medal for the 200-meter race in the 31st Modern Olympiad. Leonidas’s record lasted for 2,168 long years!

1. Milon Of Croton
10 Most Celebrated Athletes of The Ancient Olympics
Milon is known to be one of the greatest wrestlers of all times. He was a six times Olympic wrestling champion. He first won in 540 BC, in the youth wrestling event, and then each time in men’s wrestling in the next five Olympics. He also won seven times in the Pythian Games, nine times in the Nemean Games, ten times in the Isthmian Games and innumerable times in other competitions. He boasted a physique and power so terrific that he was believed to be the son of Zeus.

Several anecdotes about Milon’s superhuman strength and lifestyle abound. He was said to eat more than eight kilograms of meat every day. Legends say, he carried his own bronze statue to its place at Olympia. He once carried a bull on his shoulders to the stadium where he slaughtered, roasted, and devoured it the same day. One report says, the wrestler was able to hold a pomegranate without damaging it while challengers tried to pry his fingers from it. He could also maintain his footing on an oiled discus while others tried to push him from it.

He was a student of the great mathematician and philosopher, Pythagoras. It was said that Milon had saved Pythagoras’s life when a pillar collapsed in a banquet hall and he supported the roof until Pythagoras could reach safety.

In contrast to his outstanding accomplishments, Milon died a sudden ignoble death. Reportedly, he was once walking alone through the forests. In an attempt to tear a tree apart his hands became trapped in a crevice in its trunk. He could not free himself and was devoured by a pack of wolves.

Milon’s legendary strength and death became popular subjects of art and literature. Milon was also a musician and a poet.

Author’s blurb: Apurva Dhage is a freelance writer. She is a passionate knowledge seeker and enjoys reading and craftwork during leisure. Feel free to contact. Email:

Top 10 Crazy gods and Deities From Around The World

Nowadays, when most of us think of the word God, what springs to mind is a sensible humane God or spirit worshiped by the devotees of one of the major religions. However, if you delve a little deeper into anthropology or history, you are bound to find a great number of highly unusual gods that are still worshiped or have been worshiped in the past. Below is a list of ten such curious, crazy gods and deities.

10. Mutunus Tutunus
Mutunus Tutunus
Mutunus Tutunus was a Roman fertility deity symbolised as a giant penis. It is believed that the deity had a sanctuary in ancient Rome which was visited by veiled women. Mutunus Tutunus played a significant part in every marriage ceremony.

It is said that previous to marriage rites brides straddled the phallus god as a way of making the first offering of their virginity. This also apparently prepared the brides for intercourse and taught them not to be embarrassed by sex.

A model of the god’s phallus was kept in most Roman bedrooms. The poor usually had only a stone or clay representation of the phallus whereas the middle class and the rich could afford finer representations made from marble or bronze.

9. Babi
babi egyptian god
Babi was a fierce, blood-thirsty baboon god worshiped in Ancient Egypt. As early as the Old Kingdom Babi represented supernatural aggression to which the monarch aspired.

Babi had full control of the darkness and had the power to open up the sky for monarchs because his phallus was the bolt on the doors of heaven. Also, the ferryboat of the underworld used Babi’s phallus as its mast.

The terrifying god was said to live on human entrails and thus protection spells were necessary to protect oneself against him, especially during the weighing of the heart ceremony in the Hall of the Two Truths where a person’s suitability for Paradise was determined.

8. Aphroditus
Aphroditus nude classical statue
Aphroditus (or Aphroditos) was a god worshiped in Greece. He was worshiped as both male and female and was portrayed as having a female form and Aphrodite’s clothing but also the beard and sexual organs of a man.

To celebrate Aphroditus men and women routinely exchanged clothing and assumed alternate sexual roles. It is also believed that during these rituals women assumed a penetrative role while men celebrated the “passive” sexual experience.

Aphroditus is also identified as the later god Hermaphroditus, whose name means “Aphroditus in the form a herm.” In Greek mythology, Hermaphroditus was the son of Hermes and Aphrodite.

7. Pudicitia
Pudicitia the Roman goddess
Pudicitia was the Roman goddess of chastity and fidelity and was always represented as veiled. Pudicitia was also a feminine Roman virtue. Pudicitia was chastity, fidelity and piety attached to modesty and was maintained by a woman’s father or male relatives and later by a husband. Pudicitia was expressed by staying at home and by remaining invisible and untouchable to the public world.

In fact, women who were content with one marriage were honoured with the crown of Pudicitia as it was believed that the mind of a woman was uncorrupted and loyal only when she “did not know how to leave the bed on which her virginity had been laid down.”

The value of Pudicitia, as well as the worship of the goddess Pudicitia declined after the founding of the Roman Empire.

6. Bona Dea
Bona Dea
The Bona Dea, or the “Good Goddess”, was a Roman goddess of women and healing who was worshipped exclusively by women. Her true name is said to be Fauna, which means “She Who Wishes Well.” However, Fauna was believed to be her secret name, not to be spoken aloud, especially by men.

The Bona Dea was an earth goddess who protected women, and who watched over virgins and matrons especially. She was also believed to have oracular powers which she revealed only to women.

The Bona Dea had a secret festival celebrated only by women during which neither wine nor myrtle were to be mentioned by name. According to one legend this was because one night Bona Dea’s husband Faunus, the god of the wild, came home to find that she had drunk an entire jar of wine. Enraged, he beat her to death with a myrtle scourge. Thus, during the secret festival myrtle was forbidden and wine had to be referred to as “milk.”

5. Juno Viriplaca
Juno Viriplaca
Juno Viriplaca also known as “Man-Placater” or “The Goddess who Soothes the Anger of Man”, was a Roman goddess who restored peace between a married couple.

Juno Viriplaca had a sanctuary on the Palatine Hill in Rome where women went when they believed that they were wronged by their husbands. They would tell Juno Viriplaca their grief and the goddess would dispose their minds to become reconciled to their husbands.

Often, the husband and wife would visit the sanctuary together. While there, each would speak their mind until their argument was settled at which point they would return home in harmony.

4. Baron Samedi
Baron Samedi Voodoo
Baron Samedi is a Haitian Vodou deity. He is often depicted with a skull-like face, wearing a black top hat, a long black coat and glasses or sunglasses. He also carries with him a cane that is adorned with an erect phallus.

Baron Samedi is said to preside over cemeteries and crossroads as well as the spirits of the dead. He possesses his followers at parties and rituals and makes the possessed individuals dance lewdly, make crude comments in a high-pitched nasal voice, mime sexual intercourse, eat gluttonously, drink heavily and smoke.

However, despite his vulgar behaviour, Baron Samedi is taken very seriously as he can give his devotees helpful advice on a wide range of problems, from romantic difficulties to employment issues. He can tell his followers when they are under the influence of witchcraft and he can also wreak revenge on his follower’s enemies. Baron Samedi is a deity often invoked in witchcraft and black magic.

3. Ungud
Wandjina & Ungud by Leah Umbagai
Wandjina & Ungud by Leah Umbagai.
Ungud is a bisexual snake god in the mythology of the Aboriginals in north-western Australia. Ungud is often associated with the rainbow and is known as the “Rainbow Serpent”. He is often associated with the erections of medicine men.

It is said that Ungud, with the help of the Milky Way, made the world and created natural species by dreaming itself into their various shapes. Ungud also created clones of itself, known as “wonjina”, and placed them in various places but particularly in waterholes.

It is believed that these clones generated human spirits which then entered women and became babies. Thus, Ungud is seen as an archetype of life itself as opposed to a Father-God or a Mother-God.

2. Liber
curious gods and deities
Liber was a Roman god of male fertility, viniculture and freedom. A public festival of Liberalia was celebrated on the 17th of March in his honour. The festival was celebrated with sacrifices, processions, and bawdy songs.

It is said that the god Liber was especially celebrated with the worship of the male organ. During the festival, statues of phalluses were set up on little carts and, with great honour, were first displayed at rural crossroads and then brought into the city.

In the town of Lavinium, a whole month was dedicated to god Liber. During that month everyone used the most indecent language until the phallus was carried through the forum and brought to rest in its own dedicated spot. It was a tradition to have the most respectful matron to place a crown on top of the phallus.

Furthermore, to make sure that god Liber was appeased and evil spirits were ward of the fields, the matron was “forced to do in public what not even a prostitute would have been allowed to do in the theatre”.

1. Hephaestus
Crazy gods and deities
Hephaestus was the Greek god of blacksmiths, sculptors, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes. He is most commonly symbolised with a hammer, an anvil and a pair of tongs.

Hephaestus was a talented craftsman and was well known for the wonderful weapons he made. He also made wheelchairs that moved on their own, and golden servants that helped him move about. As well as that, he created Pandora, a clay statue to whom Athena gave life, thus creating the first woman.

While Hephaestus was a great craftsman (he even built remarkable palaces for the gods atop Mount Olympus), his love life was not very successful (his wife had an affair with the god of war.)

10 Forgotten Facts About Hollywood History That Will Surprise You

Today, almost everyone agrees that Hollywood is the movie capital of the world. It is a place where many great movies are produced and where many world renowned actors become famous. In popular imagination, Hollywood is also a place of glamour, fame and fortune but few know the real history of Hollywood. Below, we have a list of ten forgotten facts about Hollywood history that will surprise you.

10. The Film Industry Was Driven To California By Thomas Edison

Edison Drove the Film Industry to California
Back in the day Thomas Edison held thousands of patents in the United States, including patents relating to the movie industry. Over time, Edison and other film-related patent holders formed the Motion Picture Patent Company which exhibited a near monopoly on the production, distribution, and exhibition of all things film. Thus, if you wanted to be in the movie business you had to have the approval of Edison and his company.

As a result, many in the film industry, known as “independents”, chose to flee to California because judges there were less friendly to the patents awarded to Edison and the company. And even if Edison’s patents were held valid, enforcement was going to be tricky due to expensive cross-continental travel.

9. Hollywood Was Once An Alcohol Free Community

Hollywood Was Once an Alcohol-Free Community
In the late 1800s, a young woman named Daeida Hartell travelled to Hollywood with her husband, Harvey Henderson Wilcox, and convinced him to purchase 120 acres of land. The couple then soon moved there permanently with an image of turning the place into a “utopian subdivision” which would accommodate “cultured, wholesome Midwesterners looking for fresh air and a second act in California”.

Daeida’s goal was to turn the town into “an alcohol-free, cultured Christian community”. She offered free lots to Christian churches and banned liquor, the use of firearms, speeding, pool halls, and bowling alleys. Interestingly, it was also forbidden to ride bicycles and tricycles on sidewalks.

8. Hollywood Once Banned Movie Theatres

Hollywood Once Banned Movie Theatres
Ironically, Hollywood once banned not only alcohol, speeding and pool halls, but also movie theatres. At the time that the restriction was made, Hollywood did not even have any movie theatres.

However, in 1910 the city voted to merge with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to Los Angeles sewer system. Los Angeles, a city of 100,000 on the verge of an economic boom, did not have any laws forbidding movie theatres. The first film by a Hollywood studio was shot in October 1911, and the Whitley home was used as its set.

7. The Hollywood Sign Originally Said Hollywoodland

Hollywood Sign Originally Said Hollywoodland
Nowadays the Hollywood sign is synonymous with the show business, but it wasn’t always so. In fact, the sign began as an advertisement for a new segregated housing development.

Harry Chandler, real estate developer and Los Angeles Times publisher, began his “Hollywoodland” development in March of 1923. Later that same year, he invested $21,000 for the massive “Hollywoodland” signage which was adorned with 4,000 twenty-watt light bulbs and blinked, in sequence, “HOLLY”…”WOOD”…”LAND”.

The “Hollywoodland” sign was originally only supposed to stay up for a year and a half, but remained there for decades until it started falling apart in the 1940’s. Because the sign had become such a recognisable feature of Hollywood, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce and the L.A parks department agreed to restore the sign, but removed the word “land”.

6. The Father Of Hollywood

The Father Of Hollywood
The First Family of Hollywood: H.J. Whitley, his wife Virginia and their two children. This photograph dates from the 1880s. (discoverhollywood.com)
Howard Johnston Whitley, known as the “Father of Hollywood”, was a successful land developer. It is said that over the course of his lifetime he founded over 140 towns.

In the mid 1880s Whitley came to Southern California and bought a 500 acre ranch. As word spread that the successful land developer was buying property in Hollywood, people started moving to the promising town. At the start of the 20th century, Whitley brought telephone, electric and gas lines to the new suburb, and also opened the famous Hollywood Hotel.

In 1922, Whitley completed the development of Whitley Heights, one of the first hillside subdivisions in Hollywood, which attracted stars such as Rudolph Valentino and Jean Harlow. When Whitley’s friend, Harry Chandler, was involved in the development of the Hollywood Hills in 1923, Whitley advised his friend to use a sign to advertise the land because he had used a sign to promote Whitley Heights and found it very effective. Chandler listened to his friend and on July 13th 1923, the “Hollywoodland” sign went up.

5. The Forgotten Hollywood Sorority

The Forgotten Hollywood Sorority
In 1916 the librarian Eleanor Jones set up a club for young women who were aspiring to make it in Hollywood. With Eleanor’s encouragement, the young women started to rehearse plays in the library’s basement and with the help of the Young Women’s Christian Association, the club graduated to a meeting hall.

Eleanor eventually convinced film studios and businessmen to donate money and rent the club an old house that could accommodate up to 20 women. The club was described as a Hollywood sorority, a chaperoned dormitory and even a “rescue home for wayward girls”.

Eventually, the sorority house grew into the Hollywood Studio Club with a 100 residents who were provided with meals, typewriters and practise rooms. There was a long waiting list for the club and all of those who were seeking a career in the motion picture business were welcome to apply.

Sharon Tate, Kim Novak, Marilyn Monroe and many other famous actresses were all residents of the club. But by the 1970s the concept of the Hollywood Studio Club became outdated and sadly, the club house was turned into a regular hotel.

4. Nikita Krushchev Visited Hollywood

Nikita Khrushchev Goes to Hollywood
In 1959, the Soviet Premier Nikita Kruschchev visited the United States, and consequently, Hollywood. Twentieth Century Fox had invited him to watch the filming of the musical Can-Can, and Krushchev had graciously accepted. A luncheon was also organised, but there was a problem: only 400 people could fit inside the room, and as one can imagine, almost everybody in Hollywood wanted to be there.

A couple of stars, such as Bing Crosby, Ward Bond and Ronal Reagan turned down their invitations as a protest against Krushchev. But many more were dying to meet the Communist dictator. Stars such as Gary Cooper, Kim Novak, Dean Martin, and Ginger Rogers were all present at the luncheon, as was Marilyn Monroe.

During the luncheon, Krushchev rambled about the greatness of Soviet Union for about an hour, and at one point threw a tantrum because he was no longer invited to go to Disneyland due to security reasons. And of course, when he met Monroe, he was smitten. She later said “He looked at me the way a man looks on a woman.”

3. The Role Of Women

Girls We Should Thank for Kickstarting Hollywood
A hundred years ago women played a prominent role in shaping early Hollywood and were involved in nearly every aspect of film production. In 1912, for example, Helen Gardner was the first film actor, male or female, to form her own production company.

Mabel Normand, a silent film actress, screenwriter, director and producer who had her own movie studio and production company, was an important figure that helped start Chaplin’s career. She also acted as his leading lady and mentor in a number of films, sometimes co-writing, directing and co-directing with him. When Chaplin’s first motion-picture film failed, Mabel convinced the industry to give Chaplin another chance.

2. Hollywood Canteen

Forgotten Facts About Hollywood History
In 1942 Bette Davis and John Garfield started the Hollywood Canteen, an all-star nightclub that offered entertainment, dancing and food to service men and women. The Hollywood Canteen was serviced by a 3,000 member team of Hollywood professionals who felt that military service should be honoured.

The list of volunteers included big stars such as Betty Grable, Judy Garland, Cary Grant and Shirley Temple. The female stars could be often seen either dancing with the troops and sailors or escorting them in. Some stars also worked behind the scenes preparing and serving food.

1. Old Hollywood’s Stars Were The Last To Use LSD For Therapy

Forgotten Facts About Hollywood History
Back in the day, psychiatric practitioners believed that LSD stimulated psychosis. This idea was soon replaced with the notion that LSD could be used in therapy. In the late 50s Dr. Mortimer Hartman opened the Psychiatric Institute of Beverly Hills where he charged $100 a hit.

Cary Grant loved LSD. He initially went to Hartman to find out what his then wife Betsy Drake had been saying about him during therapy sessions. But Dr. Hartman soon diagnosed Grant with “prolonged emotional detachment” and convinced the actor that LSD might help.

And it mostly did. But sometimes Grant’s LSD trips took on a nightmarish turn. He once said: “You know we are all unconsciously holding our anus. In one LSD dream, I shit all over the rug and shit all over the floor. Another time I imagined myself as a giant penis launching off from Earth like a spaceship…”

In the early 60s, the Food and Drug Administration started to look more closely at the Psychiatric Institute of Beverly Hills and Hartman was forced to close in 1962. Grant continued taking LSD, albeit more quietly, and left $10,000 dollars to Hartman.

10 Historical Prophecies That Actually Came True

Some humans are gifted as they have an insight which astounds everyone if it ever comes true. Some of the Major disasters in the world were predicted by people in the past which actually came true thus baffling the minds of the people who were not much into Clairvoyance and Prophecies.

10 Historical Prophecies That Actually Came True

10 Historical Prophecies That Actually Came True
10- RMS Titanic Disaster
In 1898, an American author named Morgan Robertson published a novella titled as Futility or The Wreck of the Titan in which he predicted the disaster of RMS Titanic. The novella told a fictional story of an ocean liner named SS Titan, which sinks in the North Atlantic Ocean after hitting into an iceberg. Fourteen years later, in 1912, the events of his book were mirrored almost exactly with sinking of Titanic which perished 1503 people with it.

What the intriguing fact is that the list of similarities between the fictional Titan and the real Titanic is amazingly wide-ranging. Titan was described to have had the same size and speed as Titanic, both were deemed ‘unsinkable’, both had a dangerously less number of lifeboats on board, both sank in April and both lost more than half of the passengers and crew. Even the names sound similar! Surprisingly, Robertson wrote the book years before the actual disaster so how could he predict it so incisively? Though he denied all the indictments of clairvoyance stating that the similarities were merely a co-incidence and a result of his knowledge on shipbuilding and maritime trends due to his father being a ship Captain, it still blows a person’s mind off. (Source: Time Magazine)

9- Wi-Fi
Nikola Tesla, a Serbian-American inventor and engineer, often nicknamed as the Man who invented 20th Century. He is best known for the contribution towards the modern electrical supply system. Another amazing thing he did was that he predicted wi-fi in 1901. While in an interview with The New York Times, he discussed his predictions on the future technology and said ‘it will soon be possible to transmit wireless messages all over the world so simply that any individual can carry and operate his own apparatus.’

And surely by Apparatus he meant mobile phone, which is also shocking because the first mobile phone wasn’t created until 1973 and Wi-Fi wasn’t introduced until 1991! He also kind of foresaw the invention of Skype and Video-calling in 1926 as in another interview he stated ‘through television and telephony we shall see and hear one another as perfectly as though we were face to face, despite intervening distances of thousands of miles’. Indeed, a mega genius. There is a memorial statue of Tesla in San Francisco which emits free Wi-Fi for the visitors, appropriate enough!
Sources: (New York Times, Collier Magazine)

8- Organ Transplants
Robert Boyle, a critically influential scientist known for Boyle’s Law and referred as Father of Modern Chemistry made a prediction related to Biology! He was a person known for being way ahead of his time. In the 1660’s, he made a wish list in his journal explicitly mentioning that in the future, medicine will see the cure of diseases by transplantation, a notion which was never thought of at that time. Over 300 years after his staggering prediction, the first kidney transplant took place which was successful. Since then, this procedure has grown common all over the world and has been saving lives. For instance, in 2014, around 17,107 kidney transplants took place in the US alone. He didn’t just write about transplants, his mysteriously correct journal also had mentions about submarines, psychedelic drugs, genetically modified crops, GPS, Airplanes and prolongation of life.
(Sources: Telegraph, Kidney.org)

7- Atomic Bomb
H.G Wells, an acclaimed author known for War of the Worlds and The Time Machine predicted the atomic bomb. On the verge of WWII most people couldn’t even imagine the destruction caused by an atomic bomb when H.G Wells in his novel The World Set Free, he described a uranium based hand grenade that would continue to explode indefinitely. Wells wasn’t much of a Science guy with a very little or no knowledge about the Radioactive elements and would have no way of knowing that it would actually be possible to weaponize atomic power in future. The first project which initialized making an atomic bomb started 28 years after Wells’ book was published.
(Sources: BBC)

See Also. 10 Times People Predicted the Future.

6- The Wall Street Crash
Edgar Cayce was an extremely popular mystic in the early 1920’s. He could answer almost any question from personal issues to national politics while in a trance. In 1925, Cayce began cautioning his clients that 1929 will bring the biggest economic catastrophe in America leading to depression. Some of his clients heeded to the warnings and withdrew their money. When the predicted time came, the New York Stock Exchange crashed plunging 13 million people to unemployment. The stock prices didn’t get normal until 1954.

Cayce’s prophecies did not just end there. In 1938, he predicted that the archaeologists shall make a discovery in the sea water near Bimini in the Bahamas which would represent the Rising of Atlantis. Surprisingly in 1968, the Bimini road was uncovered and a mysterious underwater formation of rocks was found which people regard as the Lost City of Atlantis. Cayce even predicted his death so accurately stating on January 1st 1945 that he shall be buried in four more days. True to his words, he died of a stroke on January 3rd. Spooky. (Sources: BBC, Huffington Post)

5- The Internet
American Literary icon Mark Twain predicted internet 90 years before Tim-Berners Lee launched World Wide Web. In 1898, he wrote a short science fiction story called ‘From the ‘London Times’ in 1904’ in which he described a device named Telectroscope which was connected with the telephonic systems of the world and made the daily doings of the world visible to everybody. He also ominously predicted his own death in his 1909 autobiography stating that ‘I came with the Haley’s comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go with it.’ He died on 21st April 1910, the same day the comet appeared as it appeared on his birth 75 years earlier.
(Sources: Solar Views, Neatorama)

See also; 10 Historic Predictions That Turned Out To Be True.

4- The Landing on Moon
Another author whose fiction turned into being eerily true was Jules Verne. He was a 19th century French novelist who is well known for the classical adventure story ‘Around the World in Eighty Days’. In 1865, he wrote a small science fiction story called ‘From the Earth to the Moon’ which portrayed human’s first trip to the moon ever. Almost after a century of Jules visualization, in 1969, the events of his story came very much true when Neil Armstrong made one giant leap for the mankind.

Verne’s story of a lunar trip isn’t the thing which makes his prediction notable but the similarities between the journey in his book compared Apollo’s journey including the number of astronauts and that both rockets were launched from Florida. However, the weirdest of the co incidences was Verne’s description of astronauts feeling weightlessness. At the time he had written the story, even the scientists didn’t know that gravity behaves differently in space so how could he have known?
(Sources: Encyclopedia Astronautica, Business Insider)

3- The Cold War
A French Political Scientist named Alexis de Tocqueville predicted in his 1840 publication: ‘Democracy in America’ writing There are now two great nations in the world which, starting from different points, seem to be advancing toward the same goal; Russians and Anglo Americans each seems called by some secret desire of Providence one day to hold in its hands, the destinies of half the world.’

Back when this book was written, America had been independent from Britain for just 60 years and was deeply divided by the civil war whereas Russia was under autocratic and hierarchical leadership of the tsarist regime. In such circumstances, who would have predicted these two nations to become superpowers and battling for world supremacy just over a century later? This French Political scientist did! Since then, a kind of ‘cold war’ between the Us and Soviet Union has risen with each one trying to beat the other in nuclear advancements, weaponry, space technology and of course, world influence. (Sources: History.com, Britannica)

2- The Great Fire of London
The prophecies of French apothecary and seer Michel de Nostredame are legendary with him being credited for numerous major event predictions which came true even centuries after his death. One of his most famous predictions was the Great Fire of London which broke out in 1666 and totally mangled the city burning down the homes of its 90% inhabitants. In his book called Les Propheties he wrote, ‘The blood of the just will be lacking in London, burnt up in the fire of 66.’ Isn’t that spine chilling?

It can also be assumed that he predicted the French Revolution (1789) saying ‘From the enslaved populace, songs, chants and demands, while princes and lords are held captive in prisons.’ It very much mirrors how the downtrodden peasant majority rose up and arrested the French aristocracy during the revolt. Nostredame also discussed Headless Idiots which could be in reference to thousand of people executed by the guillotine during the ensuing Reign of Terror including King Lois XVI and his wife. (Sources: Huffington Post, Express)

1- Leonardo Davinci’s Predictions
Davinci was a renaissance polymath being a scientist, artist, mathematician, musician, all in one! Davinci’s notebooks in which he recorded his thoughts from the mid 1480’s till his death in 1519 are littered with designs for inventions and such technologies that are way ahead of his time. We can’t be such generous to credit him for those inventions as his diagrams weren’t detailed enough to provide a construction guide. But inventions much like his drawings do exist such like his design for a tank like armoured vehicle over 400 years before tanks became a reality. He also drew a diagram of an early parachute 3 centuries prior to the first parachute jump. The helicopter which was not made until 1940’s was also in da Vinci’s sketches, the predecessor to the modern day flying machines! (Sources: British Library, Interesting Engineering)

10 of the Deadliest Russian Female Snipers of World War II

Hitler’s biggest mistake of World War II which led to the decline of his marauding army was the invasion of Russia. Hitler like Napoleon did not bargain for two major factors that would turn the tide of the war. The terrible Russian winters and the Russians themselves. Russia immersed itself into the war where even village schoolteachers were cast into action. Many of these were women who fought not in the open but as snipers becoming notorious and deadly in their actions chalking up kill after kill gunning down Nazi officers and professing an uncanny but ruthless skill with the sniper rifle. Many of these women became famous heroes of Russia earning accolades and medals of Honor especially the one named Lady death. Read on to know 10 of the most deadly Russian female snipers in military history.

Tanya Baramzina
Deadliest Female Russian Snipers
Tanya Baramzina
Born Tatiana Nikolaevna Baramzina, she was a kindergarten teacher before becoming a sniper in the Russian Army’s 70th rifle division, 33rd army. Tanya fought on the Belorussian front and was made to parachute behind enemy lines as part of a secret mission. Before doing so she had already chalked up 16 kills and killed a further 20 during her mission. She was ultimately captured, tortured and executed. Tanya was posthumously awarded the Gold star and was declared as a hero of the Soviet Union on March 24th 1945.

Nadezhda Kolesnikov
Deadliest Female Russian Snipers
Russian Snipers Nadezhda Kolesnikov: img via flickr.com
Nadezhda Kolesnikov was a sniper volunteer serving on the Volkhovsky Eastern front in 1943. She was credited with 19 confirmed kills. Like Kolesnikov, a total of 800.000 female combat soldiers fought with the Russian army as snipers, tank gunners, soldiers, machine gunners and even pilots. Not many who saw action survived where just 500 survived the war out of an enlisted 2000. For her service, Kolesnikov was awarded the medal of courage after the war in Russia.

Tania Chernova
Deadliest Russian Female Snipers of World War II
Russian Female Snipers of World War II
Not many will be familiar with this name but Tania inspired the female sniper character by the same name in the movie “Enemy at the Gates” which was played by Rachel Weisz who acted alongside Jude Law. Tania was an American –Russian who travelled to Belarus to get her grandparents out of Russia but they had already been killed by Germans. She then became a sniper in the Russian army joining the Hares, a sniper group formed by the famous Vatsily Zaytsev who was also portrayed as a character in the same movie and played by Jude Law. Tania was credited with 24 kills before being wounded in the abdomen from a mine. She was then taken to Tashkent where she spent a considerable time in recovery. Tania fortunately survived the war.

Ziba Ganiyeva
Deadliest Female Russian Snipers
Sniper Ziba Ganiyeva: img via pinimg.com
Ziba Ganiyeva was one of the most charismatic figures in the Russian army having been a Russian celebrity and a film actress in Azerbaijan before the war. Ganiyeva fought in the Soviet Army’s 3rd Moscow Communist Rifle Division. She was a braveheart who crossed over into enemy lines an impressive 16 times and killed 21 German soldiers. She took an active part in the battle of Moscow and was severely wounded. Her injuries did not permit her to rejoin the war where she spent 11 months recovering in hospital. Ganiyeva was awarded the combat of the Red order and Banner of the Red Star.

Roza Shanina
Russian Female Snipers of World War II
Roza Shanina – Russian Female Snipers of World War II
She was nicknamed the Unseen terror of East Prussia and entered the war before she was even 20 years old. Roza Shanina born on 3rd April, 1924 in the village of Yedma Russia actually wrote to Stalin twice to be allowed to fight with a battalion or reconnaissance company. She was the first woman sniper to be awarded the Order of Glory and fought in the famous battle of Vilnius. Roza Shanina chalked up 59 kills but did not survive the war. In an attempt to save a wounded Russian officer, she was mortally wounded by shrapnel that tore her chest open and disemboweled her. She died the next day on 27th January 1945.

Lubya Makarova
Deadliest Female Russian Snipers
Sniper Lyubov Makarova
Sergeant Guard Lubya Makarova was one of the fortunate 500 who survived the war. Fighting in the 3rd Shock army, she was famous for her active role on the 2nd Baltic front and the Kalnin front. Makarova chalked up 84 kills and returned to her hometown in Perm Russia a war hero. For her service to her country, Makarova was awarded the Order of Glory, 2nd and 3rd class.

Klavdiya Kalugina
Russian Female Snipers of World War II
Sniper Klavdiya Kalugina
Klavdiya Kalugina was one of the youngest soldiers and the youngest sniper in the Red Army. She entered the war when she was just 17. She started her war career working at a munitions factory but soon entered sniper school and was subsequently sent to the 3rd Belorussian front. Kalugina fought in Poland and was then sent to fight in the battle of Leningrad where she helped defend the city against the Germans. She was deadly in her skills where she chalked up a massive 257 kills. Kalugina survived after remaining in Leningrad till the end of the war.

Nina Lobkovskaya
Deadliest Female Russian Snipers
Sniper Nina Lobkovskaya
Nina Lobkovskaya joined the Russian army after losing her father to the war in 1942. Nina served in the Russian 3rd shock army where she attained the rank of Lieutenant. She survived the war even seeing action in the Battle for Berlin in 1945 where she commanded an entire company of 100 female snipers. Nina was credited with 89 kills.

Nina Pavlovna Petrova
Russian Female Snipers of World War II
Sniper Nina Pavlovna Petrova
Nina Pavlovna Petrova also known as “Mama Nina” and could well have been the oldest Russian female snipers in World War II. She was born in 1893 and was already 48 when she joined the war. After joining sniper school, Nina was posted to the 21st guards rifle division and saw active sniper duty. Petrova was credited with killing 122 enemy soldiers and although she survived the war she died in a tragic car accident just seven days after the war had ended. She was 53.

Lyudmila Pavlichenko
Deadliest Russian female snipers
Sniper Lyudmila Pavlichenko
Lyudmila Pavlichencko born in 1916 in Ukraine was by far the most famous of Russian female snipers nicknamed “Lady Death”. Before the war Pavlichenko was a university student and an amateur sharpshooter. After attending sniper school aged 24, she was deputized with the Red Army’s 25th Chapayev Rifle Division. Pavlichecnko was perhaps the most successful female sniper in war history where she fought in Sevastopol on the Crimean border and in Odessa. She chalked up the highest number of kills being 309 including 29 enemy snipers. Pavlichenko survived the war after being removed from active duty on account of injuries sustained in mortar fire. She was awarded the Gold Star of The Hero of the Soviet Union where the country even portrayed her faced on a postage stamp.

10 Bewildering Facts About Famous Figures

History has it’s ups and downs. Mainly we divide into into heroes and villains. But sometimes we overlook certain people and find out they did some wild things. Many people did things that may change your view about them. Here are the top 10 bewildering facts about famous figures that you might not know.

10. Thomas Edison killed Animals by Electrocuting them.

Thomas Edison gave us many things that changed the world forever. His biggest contribution was figuring out how electricity works. But the intelligent inventor also had a dark side. At that time, Edison was in a battle with Nikola Telsa to have control of America’s electric groundwork. Edison argued that his idea was the best and that Telsa’s alternating current could be dangerous to the people. So Edison needed a way to prove that the current was not secure. What better option than to electrocute a grown elephant. In fact, Edison had been electrocuting dogs and cats before as well to test the currents.

Topsy was an elephant that was used as an attraction for Coney Island. She had a long history in the park. In fact she had killed three people. On that day, Edison sent over a team of technicians and a film crew for the event. Topsy was led to a unique podium. Then Edison threw the switch. It took a couple of seconds of work. Topsy was roasted. The results showed that Edison’s idea worked and he became a rich man. But it came as a result of killing an innocent animal. You may like; top 10 animals that entertained the world.

9. Charlie Chaplin’s body was stolen from his grave and held for ransom.
Bewildering Facts About Famous Figures
Known for his famous comedic aspects, film actor Sir Charles Chaplin was one of the greatest comedic personalities of the silent-film era during the 20th century. He passed away on December 25th, 1977 in his Switzerland home.

What happened next looked like it came from a movie. Two men stealthily snatched Chaplin’s corpse from a cemetery in the Swiss village of Corsier-sur-Vevey on March 2nd, 1978. They then contacted Chaplin’s wife Oona and demanded her to pay a 600,000 dollar ransom. Otherwise, they cautioned against her children. Oona refused because her husband wouldn’t approve of such a thing.

The investigation continued and concluded in five weeks when police arrested two auto mechanics. Roman Wardas, of Poland, and Gantscho Ganev, of Bulgaria were behind the theft. It turns out that Chaplin’s body was only a mile away concealed in a cornfield. The theft was arranged by Wardes in a time where he was struggling financially. He was sentenced to four and a half years of labor. Ganev only received eighteen months since he had a inadequate role.

8. Martin Luther King made a living plagiarizing.
Martin Luther Facts About Famous Figures
The King is one of the most inspirational figures in the civil rights movement era. His biggest weapon was his inspiring speeches about racial equality. But they weren’t his own work. The King plagiarized the infamous “I Have A Dream” speech from one given at the Republican Convention in 1952 given by Archibald J. Carey, Jr., an an African-American lawyer in Chicago. The speech given by Carey goes ”We, Negro Americans, sing with all loyal Americans: My country ’tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, Land of the Pilgrims’ pride From every mountainside Let freedom ring!”

Martin Luther said almost the exact same thing in his speech in Washington on 1963. He said “My country, ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring.” But it doesn’t end there. Years after his death, the University of Stanford found out that MLK also plagiarized a doctoral about the conception of god. It included large chunks of the lines that were used in Jack Boozer’s doctoral, who wrote his three years ago. The Journal Of American History, the staff at the Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project said that Luther plagiarizing his speeches started to became a pattern.

7. Ernest Vincent Wright wrote a novel that was considered impossible.
Gadsby-Ernest Vincent Wright
Many authors have written revolutionary novels throughout their lifetime. William Shakespeare dazzled us with Romeo and Juliet. Mark Twain enticed us with Tom Sawyer. But there’s one very interesting novel you might not know. It’s called “Gadsby”. It was written by Ernest Vincent Wright.

What made the novel so special was the fact that it didn’t contain the letter “e”. What’s more remarkable is that the novel had 50,000 words! So how did Vincent avoid using the one of the most common letters? It’s simple, to avoid temptation, he took the letter “e” off his typewriter. It was a very strenuous experience for him. Most verbs have “ed” at the end. So Wright had to find replacements that made sense. Numbers also caused a lot of tension since any between seven through thirty were off limits. That was especially annoying because that means Wright had to avoid all dates in the novel.

Another concern was that he couldn’t abbreviations such as “Mr.” Or “Mrs.” because the original words had e in them. Commonly used words such as he, her, they, couldn’t be applied. So if these words must be used in a sentence, the sentence had to be redone to find a replacement that didn’t have e. It obviously also had to fit with the story as well. The book was criticized after it’s release. Many did’t believe such a thing was possible. So they said Wright was a fraud. But Wright proved that the unthinkable can be accomplished if one is determined.

6. A stolen bicycle inspired Muhammad Ali’s Career.
Facts About Famous Figures
Before he was kicking ass as a boxer, he was Classius Clay, a kid Louisville, Kentucky. There was an incident in his early life that made him hit the gym. One time he and a friend were at the Columbia Auditorium. When he came back he realized someone had stolen his bicycle . It was very valuable to him. The frustrated Classius told an officer that he wanted to beat up the thief. Coincidentally the The officer was also a boxing coach. He said “Well, you better learn how to fight before you start challenging people,” That is when Ali’s passion for boxing was born.

Ali started to work out at the gym with the cop, who was known as Jack Martin. After that he never looked back. Then he went on to accomplish amazing things in his storied career. Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee. Thanks to the thief who stole the bike and gave inspiration to a young kid who would eventually become one of the greatest ever.

5. Michael Jackson wanted to play Spider Man.
Michael Jackson As Spiderman
Michael Jackson‘s spidey sense told him that he should play Spider Man. He discussed the situation with director Stan Lee and also said that he wants to purchase the rights to the character. Lee explained that he needs to go to marvel and share his plans with them. Lee also said that he and Michael were interested in buying the superhero company Marvel in the 1990’s as well. When asked if Jackson would have done well Lee said “I think he’d have been good”. I think he’d have been very good. But I must say that Tobey Maguire was wonderful”. Lee also said that the franchise might’ve not been as successful because Michael wasn’t a great business man.

But Jackson’s superhero love doesn’t end their. X men producers said that he came to them with the proposal of starring as Professor X. Whether this was a missed opportunity by the studios, or a pipe dream for Michael, we can all agree that Jackson’s movies would be a “thriller”.

4. Alexander Graham Bell didn’t invent the telephone.
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was a perfect example of a good all around guy. Bell spent a whole lot of time working with deaf people. His wife was deaf, his mother was deaf and he was even Helen Keller’s favorite teacher. With this time-consuming near-obsession with deaf people, it’s amazing that Bell found time to invent the telephone. Or did he?

More and more evidence is showing that Bell stole the idea from an inventor named Antonio Meucci. He originally called his invention the electrophone. Also, he was rather poverty-stricken. He filed a half patent in 1871. Meucci couldn’t afford a full one. When it came time to renew, he couldn’t even put ten dollars together.

Tragedy struck when Antonio was part of a boiler explosion that killed 125 passengers. He survived but was seriously injured. When he came home he found out his wife had sold everything in his lab for six dollars to get medications. Indeed one of those things was his telephone. Meucci never gave up and built another model for the Western Union Telegraph Company. But they claimed to have lost his materials.

Skip forward to another two years, and Alexander Graham Bell filed a patent for the telephone. Meucci surely sued. But he couldn’t find his sketches and claimed he put them in the Western Union Lab where Bell coincidentally worked. Even more of a coincidence is that the sketches were gone. Unfortunately, Meucci died without being able to appeal against Bell. The House of Representatives declared the appeal irrational.

3. Dracula was a sick and merciless person.
Facts About Famous Figures
When we think of Dracula, we remind ourselves of a blood eating human that we see in movies. But there’s more where that came from. Dracula actually existed in the 15th century. Bram Stroker wrote a chilling novel in 1897 about this very peculiar man. He like lived in the Transylvanian city of Sighisoara. He wasn’t any typical prince. In fact, he was Vlad the Impaler, also known by many as “Dracula”.

Vlad was credited for the murder of 40,000 to 80,000 people in his tenure. But how he did the brutal killings is what makes him truly terrifying. Vlad favored impalement, an act in which the victim had a sharp object such as a stake pierced threw their bodies. Vlad made sure that the stake wasn’t too sharp. That would kill the person quickly and they wouldn’t have to suffer the pain in agony. At a single time, thousands were impaled. The casualties varied from merchants, ambassadors, to women and in some cases, children. No one survived the wrath of Vlad.

2. A man named Fulcanelli turned lead into gold.
Facts About Famous Figures
No one knows his name or his identity. Historians refer to him as Fulcanelli. It’s assumed that he was well educated and very intelligent. There’s no evidence of his marriage or where he was schooled. Even his name could be fake to hide the identification of the real author. There were some names associated with him. Most notably he had a famous student named Eugene Canseliet who actually did something unbelievable. He turned lead into gold. He claimed he learned from his master and became his student at the age of sixteen.

Fulcanelli also had another student named Gaston Sauvage, who says he even witnessed Canseliet pulling the feat of turning lead into gold. Canseliet last said he saw Fulcanelli in 1926. Strangely that was the year when the alchemist disappeared into thin air. Many efforts have been made to find out who this mysterious figure was. Theories have risen that it was indeed Canseliet himself since he published the works of the deceased Fulcanelli. But there are flaws in the theory and the mystery in still unsolved.

This is a bizarre case in history because the real Fulcanelli might not have disappeared and still be alive. Maybe it was a hoax because he didn’t want to reveal to anyone else how to make gold by hand. This bizarre mystery may never be solved. The man who made gold might remain anonymous forever.

1. The bad luck on the Titanic.
The bad luck on the Titanic
The titanic was a famous figure unlike any other, even though it was a ship. It will live in infamy. At the time, the Titanic was the biggest ship in the world. It was thought to be unsinkable. No one expected the tragedy that took place on April 15, 1912.

The enormous ship was carrying 2,200 passengers and crew members. The ship departed from New England and was making a voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. The ship stayed on its course until it struck an iceberg. The water went through the compartments and brought down the bow of the ship, causing the ship to break in half. The nightmare continued since their weren’t enough life boats to save as many people as possible. The ship could’ve carried 64 life boats but only 48 were planned by chief designer Alexander Carlisle to make the deck seem less clustered. But in the end only 20 life boats were carried aboard. The 14 by 30 feet lifeboats had a maximum capacity of 65 people. The other folding lifeboats had 47 people each. 1,178 people were saved by the lifeboats. That’s 33 percent of all the passengers in total.

Top 10 Hottest First Ladies in The History of America

They have been are wives to the most powerful men in the world. They ooze power, charm and charisma every time they appear in public. These ladies run the White House, run charity events, host state dinners but they still make time to look good every time they appear in public with their powerful husbands. And they do not disappoint. They dress in some of the most elegant of attires. The accessories they don are classy and among the most expensive in the world. In this piece I will rank the Hottest First Ladies in the history of America.

10. Barbara Bush (1989 – 1993)
Hottest First Ladies Barbara Bush
Barbara Bush: USA’ Hottest First Ladies.
She was wife to the 41st president of the United States George H. W. Bush. Barbara got married to George Bush Senior while they were still young a few years after they met in college. She claims that she married the only guy she had kissed for the first time. She stands out for the fearless nature in which she defended her family during the tough times. Barbara was also lucky enough to marry a president and then have one of his son become president. If luck shines on you this way then you deserve to be considered as one of the hottest first ladies in the history of America.

10. Michelle Obama (2008 – 2016)
Hottest First Ladies Michelle Obama Fashion
Hottest First Ladies Michelle Obama.
They say “the blacker the berry, the sweater the juice” and that is certainly true when it comes to Michelle Obama. She was the current First lady untill Nov, 2016, and the hottest First lady in the history of America. Her sense of style is top notch and she has an ass than drives everyone crazy.

9. Pat Nixon (1969 – 1974)
Hottest First Ladies
Pat Nixon: America’s Hottest First Ladies.
Served as First lady in the administration of her husband Richard Nixon. Richard was the 37th president of the United States. This blonde stood at 5’5” high and had hazel eyes. She really valued education and she was the first First Lady to hold a university degree. Apart from being one of the hottest First Ladies to ever live, she was really compassionate and she ran multiple children’s home in her name. Some of her hobbies included travelling and sight-seeing evident by her numerous trips abroad. She died of lung cancer at the age of 81.

8. Rosalynn Carter (1977 – 1981)
Hottest First Ladies Rosalynn Carter
USA Top 10 Hottest First Ladies – Rosalynn Carter.
Rosalynn Carter served as first lady between 1971 up to 1981. She was married to Jimmy Carter who was the 39th president of the United State. She was not your average stay at home wife as she was extensively involved politics and governance in her husband’s administration. Rosalynn served as a foreign envoy to Latin America and regularly sat in cabinet sittings. She fought passionately for the welfare of mental patients and funded research on the same. In addition, she was an elegant dresser. And more often than not she stood out as the best dressed lady in any gathering. Her efforts to look good in public and her selfless humanitarian work earns her a spot as one of the hottest First ladies in the history of America.

7. Laura Bush (2001 – 2009)
Hottest First Ladies Laura Bush
USA Hottest First Ladies – Laura Bush.
She is married to George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States. Laura Bush is one of the most popular First Ladies in America. She was actively involved in her husband’s campaign both in the gubernatorial race as well as the presidential race. Lara delivered keynote addresses during these campaigns, an act that won her husband many followers and supporters. She initiated many programs on health care and education during her tenure as First Lady. She loves cooking and she has developed a number of famous recipes that are a hit in many home in America.

6. Nancy Reagan (1981 – 1989)
Nancy Reagan-Hottest First Ladies
Nancy Reagan – The America’s Hottest First Ladies.
She was the wife of Ronald Reagan, the 40th president of the US. Nancy was an actor before she got married and he love for theater and drama was evident even in her position as First Lady. She would attend various plays and musical and even invite such performances into the White House during state dinners or when they hosted foreign dignitaries. Her sense of style was unquestionable and she wore clothes made by some of the best designers in the world. She received a lot of criticism for this but she did not give a shit. As First Lady she had to look good and this sees her ranked as one of the Hottest First Ladies in the History of America.

5. Hillary Clinton (1993 – 2001)
Hottest First Ladies Hillary Clinton
America’s Hottest First Ladies – Hillary Clinton.
I rank Hillary Clinton as the most powerful First Lady to ever live. She is fearless and she lets nothing stand in her pursuit of greatness, not even a cheating husband. As sexy as she is, Hillary Clinton suffered the agony of being cheated on. Her husband Bill Clinton had an affair with one of the employees at white house. She stood by her husband even though the logical thing to do was to separate from him. She used this experience to sojourn on to great heights. Since then she has served as Senator and US Secretary of State. She is currently running to become the President of the United State. If that is not sexy then I do not know what is. Because of all this, Hillary Clinton merits a place as one of the Hottest First Ladies in the history of America.

4. Grace Coolidge (1923 – 1929)
Hottest First Ladies Grace Coolidge
USA Hottest First Ladies – Grace Coolidge.
Grace Coolidge served as First Lady between 1923 up to 1929. She was married to Calvin Coolidge the 30th President of the United States. She had beautiful eyes and a smile so bright she would brighten even the most somber of moods. Also, she had a sexy as hell and often wore clothes that revealed her figure.

3. Frances Cleveland (1893 – 1897)
Hottest First Ladies Frances Cleveland
USA Hottest First Ladies – Frances Cleveland.
She was the youngest First Lady to ever hold office. We all know that young is always hot and sexy and her husband Grover Cleveland hit the jackpot with this one. She was very charming and this won her popularity and fame among the Americans.

2. Jacqueline Kennedy (1961- 1963)
Hottest First Ladies Jacqueline Kennedy
Jacqueline Kennedy with her husband, President John F. Kennedy.
Jacqueline had a pretty face and a lovely smile. She was a fashion icon and some of her outfit combinations are still being used up to date. Jacqueline was also an accomplished rider having been introduced to horseback riding at an early age by her parents. She therefore “rides” really well if you know what I mean. In addition, she’s is at No. 2 in the list of hottest first ladies.

1. Melania Trump (2016 – …)
Hottest First Lady Melania Trump
Hottest First Lady Melania Trump.
Melania Trump is a Slovene American former model who is the current First Lady of the United States of America. Born in Slovenia, she became a permanent resident of the United States in 2001 and a citizen in 2006. She met Donald Trump at a Fashion Week party in New York City in September 1998, while he was still married to, but separated from, Marla Maples. After becoming engaged in 2004, Donald and Melania were married on January 22, 2005. She will assume the role of First Lady of the United States on January 20, 2017.

See also; World’s top 30 most beautiful women.

The Hottest First Ladies in U.S. History.
Melania Trump
Jacqueline Kennedy
Frances Cleveland
Grace Coolidge
Hillary Clinton
Nancy Reagan
Laura Bush
Rosalyn Carter
Pat Nixon
Barbara Bush
Michelle Obama

10 Curious Medical Cures Used By Our Ancestors

Nowadays medical treatments and cures are incredibly advanced. We have a remedy for almost every type of illness and few of us opt for dubious medical cures instead of tested medical products and procedures. However, in the past, suspect medical cures were both widespread and popular. Below we have compiled a list of ten most amusing ancient treatments.

10 Curious Medical Cures Used By Our Ancestors
10. Beards To Keep Men Healthy
Beards Keep You Young
Back in the Victorian day doctors encouraged men to wear beards as a method of protection from illnesses. Since air quality was an issue almost every Victorian obsessed over (for a good reason – due to the prolific burning of soft coal the city of London was often enclosed in a permanent fog for days), a thick beard was believed to act as a sort of filter.

But beards were said to protect in other ways too. For example, some saw it as a way of relaxing the throat. Thus, wearing a beard was said to be especially beneficial for those involved in public speaking. And finally, as mad as it sounds to us today, some doctors believed that men who wore beards would not get a sore throat.

9. Chocolate Cures Everything
Chocolate Cures Everything
After chocolate was imported to Europe, it quickly gained a reputation as a powerful drug. This idea of chocolate as a drug was boosted by the theory of humorism which stated that the human body comprises of four humors and whenever one of these humors falls out of balance, disease ensues. Diseases could be either hot or cold and wet or dry and had to be treated with oppositely classified cures. Cocoa was a handy cure for it could be prepared both in hot and cold forms.

With time, some doctors came to view chocolate as a treatment for specific illnesses. For example, in a 1631 treatise the Spanish physician Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma claimed that chocolate “takes away the Morpheus, cleaneth the teeth, and sweeteneth the breath, provokes urine, cures the stone, and expels poison, and preserves from all infectious diseases.”

However, some doctors went even further and began associating chocolate with rather unreal qualities. For example, in 1796 some physicians argued that chocolate could delay the growth of white hair and in 1864 it was believed that a chocolate concoction could treat syphilis.

8. Plants That Look Like Organs Actually Cure The Said Organs

Using Organ-Shaped Plants to Treat Disease
In the past people believed that plants, nuts and vegetables that resembled a human body part or organ could actually treat the resembling limb or organ. Thus the bloodroot, with its red extract, was thought to fix any problems relating to blood and the saxifrage which breaks apart rocks as it grows, was believed to relieve kidney stones.

The curious idea, known as the “doctrine of signatures”, was first mentioned in the West by the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder. The theory’s popularity reached its peak in the 16th and 17th centuries when it was believed that God dropped hints as to which plants were good for the human body by creating plants that showed a certain “signature” by resembling the thing they treat.

Of course, nowadays we know that the “doctrine of signatures” is both wildly wrong and wildly dangerous. Even in the 16th century, some physicians called it “absolutely unworthy of acceptance”.
However, the idea of “doctrine of signatures” is not a completely mad one. Eyebright, for example, can be put into eye drops to treat eye infections and the common purslane’s stalks, which resemble worms, can actually control intestinal parasite loads. Thus, it is quite possible that in ancient times the “doctrine of signatures” has been used not to identify cures but to remember them.

7. X Rays To Remove Unwanted Hair
X Rays To Remove Unwanted Hair
X-rays were first used in dermatology in 1896 when Leopold Freund, the Viennese founder of radiotherapy, used it to treat a hairy growth which covered his patient’s back. After 12 days and 20 hours of X-rays, the hair on the patient’s back started falling out.

X-rays were soon seen as an excellent treatment for eczema, acne and unwanted hair. However, X-rays also caused skin burns, dermatitis and cancerous growths. But while some professionals condemned these treatments, others believed that the problems were the result of bad practises that occurred when X-rays were poorly understood. It was generally believed that the use of screens, shorter exposures and improved techniques would decrease harmful consequences of X-rays.

Since the average interval between X-ray exposure and the diagnosis of skin cancer is 21 years, long-term effects of X-ray treatments became visible much too late. Closing down all the establishments that provided these treatments proved to be an impossibly hard task but with the help of media the businesses were eventually shut down for good.

6. Ambition Pills To Cure Impotency And Evil Forebodings

“Ambition Pills” emerged in America in the 1800s. They targeted “weak and nervous men” and promised to cure impotency, sleeplessness, enlarged veins and nervous debility, including troublesome dreams, despondency, evil forebodings and aversion to society, caused by overwork or other excesses. The pills were especially recommended in cases were said “illnesses” were long standing or incurable by other remedies.

That sounds all well and good. Except that in 1918, the Journal of the American Medical Association published preliminary findings on what these “ambition pills” contained. It was found that each pill contained pepper, cinnamon and ginger, as well as what seemed like aloes in small amounts. However, each pill also contained around one-fifth of a grain of iron in the form of sesquioxid and a little over one-thirtieth of a grain of strychnine.

“Ambition Pills” were sold at fifty cents a box with each box containing forty-two pills. Thus, it was possible for anyone to purchase enough strychnine in a single box to kill an adult. As one can imagine, the fact that the pills contained strychnine, the colourless and odourless toxic pesticide meant that “ambition pills” were soon banned by the AMA before any serious damage could be done.

5. Valentine’s Meat Juice To Conserve Weakened Vital Forces

Valentine’s Meat-Juice
“Valentine’s Meat Juice” was brought into production in 1871 and soon gained popularity with orthodox physicians and professional publications such as British Medical Journal. It could supposedly “conserve the weakened vital forces without irritating the digestive organs” in cases of diarrhoea, dysentery, and cholera infantum.

The curious product was invented by Mann. S. Valentine after one of his family members (purportedly his wife) came into great danger from “a severe and protracted derangement of the organs of digestion.” She could not eat any normal food but none of the available substitutes could satisfy her either.

Through experimentation Valentine managed to turn all the goodness of raw meat into a highly condensed form. Instead of being boiled or roasted, Valentine’s product was the result of mechanical compression and low heat and thus supposedly retained all the protein of raw flesh.

Half a teaspoon to two teaspoons of Valentine’s Meat Juice diluted by water and taken by mouth was commonly prescribed by physicians. However, some doctors advised taking the product per rectum. For example, one enema described in The Philadelphia Medical Journal was made up of an egg, one tablespoon of Valentine’s Meat Juice, sterilised milk, brandy, salt, and sterilised water. Two ounces of this mixture was to be placed “as high up in the large bowel as possible” every two hours.
In 1909, the American Medical Association found that the product did not in actual fact contain any more protein than the average meat extract made with the use of heat.

4. Cure Rheumatism By Sitting In A Rotting Whale

Cure Rheumatism By Sitting In A Rotting Whale
Believe it or not, but back in the day people suffering from rheumatism were seriously advised to sit inside the stomach of a dead whale for about 30 hours in order to relieve their symptoms. If they managed to do so, they were promised to be relieved from pain for at least 12 months as a result of the healing properties of the gases and fumes generated by the rotting carcass of the whale.

The bizarre procedure would begin when a hole was put through one side of the whale’s body, large enough to fit a patient. The patient would then climb inside the whale, leaving only his head outside the aperture. The aperture was then closed up as closely as possible to ensure that the patient did not have to breathe in the overpowering ammoniacal gases that would have otherwise escaped from every opening left uncovered.

The Pall Mall Gazette in 1896 ran a story suggesting that the whale cure was born after a drunk fell into a whale carcass and emerged two hours later completely sober and cured of his rheumatism – “The whale had already been cut open, and appeared to our hilarious friend a tempting morsel of flesh. He made for it and plunged right into the huge mountain of decomposing blubber […] He found himself so comfortable that he did not emerge for over two hours.”

3. Wipe Your Face With A Cloth While Watching A Falling Star To Get Rid Of Acne

10 Curious Medical Cures Used By Our Ancestors
Acne has been around forever and hypothesis explaining its appearance and treatment has varied with time. For example, the Greek poet Theocritus was convinced that telling lies invariably resulted in the appearance of pimples on the nose.

The ancient Egyptians treated acne like most other diseases of the time, namely with magic and sulphur. In 4th century AD, Roman physicians prescribed a curious treatment for those suffering from acne: patients had to wipe their face with a cloth while watching a falling star. If all was done correctly, the pimples would simply fall off the face and body. This treatment later resurfaced during the Middle Ages.

2. Asthma Cigarettes To Cure Any Respiratory Condition

amusing ancient treatments
In the late 19th century asthma cigarettes were extremely popular both in America and Europe. The cigarettes were supposed to cure any respiratory condition, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, whooping cough, cholera, croup, catarrh, and hay fever.

The cigarettes contained no tobacco but crushed and dried herbs such as Indian Hemp, Cannabis, Atropine and Belladonna. Inhaling the latter herb provided a hallucinogenic effect which helped those suffering from asthma to take their minds of their illness.

However, smoking asthma cigarettes that contained Belladonna could also result in side effects such as a dry mouth, increased heart rate, dilated pupils, nausea and headache. The herb could also cause death if inhaled in high enough quantities.

1. Cure A Hangover With A Special Wreath Worn Around The Neck

Curious Medical Cures Used
A curious Ancient Egyptian “drunken headache” cure has been published in recent transcription from the Oxyrhynchus papyrus records. The cure advises the sufferer to string together the leaves of a shrub called Alexandrian chamaedaphne, which supposedly eases headaches, and wear the wreath around his or her neck.

Flower wreaths, such as ones made from roses or myrtle, were also said to be effective for they would cool down your bad humours and relieve headaches. But wreaths made from flowers such as lilies were to be avoided due to their heavy scent.

It is interesting to note that Greek and Roman physicians wrote entire treatises on the topic of curative wreaths. Unfortunately, all these treatises , except for a few extracts, are now completely lost.